P076 - Multimodal Image-Text Matching Improves Retrieval-based Chest X-Ray Report Generation

Jaehwan Jeong, Katherine Tian, Andrew Li, Sina Hartung, Subathra Adithan, Fardad Behzadi, Juan Calle, David Osayande, Michael Pohlen, Pranav Rajpurkar

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Automated generation of clinically accurate radiology reports can improve patient care. Previous report generation methods that rely on image captioning models often generate incoherent and incorrect text due to their lack of relevant domain knowledge, while retrieval-based attempts frequently retrieve reports that are irrelevant to the input image. In this work, we propose Contrastive X-Ray REport Match (X-REM), a novel retrieval-based radiology report generation module that uses an image-text matching score to measure the similarity of a chest X-ray image and radiology report for report retrieval. We observe that computing the image-text matching score with a language-image model can effectively capture the fine-grained interaction between image and text that is often lost when using cosine similarity. X-REM outperforms multiple prior radiology report generation modules in terms of both natural language and clinical metrics. Human evaluation of the generated reports suggests that X-REM increased the number of zero-error reports and decreased the average error severity compared to the baseline retrieval approach. Our code is available at: https://github.com/rajpurkarlab/X-REM
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Poster presentation

Schedule: Wednesday, July 12: Virtual poster session - 8:00–9:00
Poster location: Virtual only

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